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1 year ago

Seventy six per cent of samples contained

Dust is a significant source of human exposure to chemicals: the airborne fine particulates present an inhalation risk while coarser material which deposits as dust fall is a risk from ingestion (Christoforidis and Stamatis, 2009 and Shi et al., 2011), especially for infants and children who are more prone to transferring Vandetanib from hand to mouth (Glorennec et al., 2012). Persons afflicted with pica are particularly at risk from dust ingestion. Chemicals in dust fall also represent a source of contamination to crops and vegetables (Smith et al., 2004 and Shi et al., 2007) and are thus potential sources for consumers of these foods (Lee et al., 2012 and Asami et al., 2013). Not much is known about the presence of perchlorate in dust fall. Recent work from China (Gan et al., 2014) reports perchlorate in dust collected shortly after the New Year celebrations during February–March 2013 and found values ranging from 0.132 to 5300 μg g− 1, but these results pertained to dust settled on window sills or building surfaces in several cities.

1 year ago

Two distinct water types were found to occur

4.1.3.6. Brackish Na–Cl–HCO3 water types
5. Conclusions
Using a combination of multivariate statistics, assessment of major ion relationships and geochemical modelling the hydrochemical SB 225002 in a large alluvial aquifer, the upper Condamine alluvium in eastern Australia was assessed. The alluvial aquifer is a critical groundwater resource for irrigated agriculture in the area, and it overlies a commercially-viable, shallow coal seam gas (CSG) reserve: as a result recharge processes and alluvium–bedrock connectivity were a focus of this study, particularly the evolution of Na–HCO3 and Na–HCO3–Cl water types and their occurrence in the alluvium.
In general, no relationships were observed between CSG groundwater in the WCM and the alluvial groundwater. Hydrochemical similarities between a shallow alluvial groundwater sample and CSG groundwater identified during the hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) were shown to be clustering artefacts caused by the evolution of similar water types via different processes. This highlights the risk associated with the sole application cluster techniques to identify potential aquifer connectivity in CSG-related studies.

1 year ago

Comparison between the concentrations of metal in tissue of

perna showed a small decrease of Cu (also observed in sediment), Mn, and Zn (130.2 to 101.5 μg/g) and an increase in Fe contamination, compared to 10 years earlier based on general means of similar stations ( Furley et al., 1997). The Cu concentrations in the sediment had a significant relationship with P. perna (P = 0.006 and r = 0.82) ( Table 5).

1 year ago

In summary in our experimental conditions ns

There is an intense interest in supported nanoparticles on semiconductor materials due to synergistic positive effects that provides extraordinary properties. Combination of Pt, Pd, Ni, Ag, NiO or RuO2 nanoparticles with semiconductor such as TiO2, ZnO, NaTaO3 and Sr2Ta2O7 produces systems that possess numerous applications in modern engineering, environmental and Calcium chloride [1], [2], [3] and [4]. In particular, nickel nanoparticles on metal semiconductor oxides has been widely used as cocatalysts to improve photocatalytic water splitting in a noble-metal free system [5], [6] and [7]. The photocatalytic potential of NiO/Sr2Ta2O7 have been demonstrated for water splitting with high hydrogen evolution rate [8], [9] and [10]. However, the performance efficiency of the metal/oxide system is strongly influenced by the size, shape and nanoparticles dispersion. The conventional synthesis method employed to support Ni nanoparticles are impregnation techniques, although the dispersion of nickel nanoparticles is relatively lower and polymer is difficult to control particle size and shape [11] and [12]. Thus, the need of competitive low-cost procedures and short preparation time of supported Ni nanoparticles with high dispersion as well as high Ni loading still remain challenging. Electroless technique is an attractive choice because it is possible to deposit Ni nanoparticles in any surface with a good control of Ni loading, size and dispersion, being also a short-time and low temperature process that requires simple equipment [12], [13] and [14]. In this paper, an electroless deposition was employed to disperse Ni nanoparticles on Sr2Ta2O7 with a SMT and PRT surface in order to investigate the effect of the texture of the material in the electroless processes parameters such as temperature and deposition time.

1 year ago

The T values obtained for the as quenched ribbons

The plating bath composition and electroplating conditions are given in Table?1. The plating bath for Ni–W alloys is an aqueous solution of nickel sulfate and sodium tungstate with citric BIIE 0246 and ammonium sulfate as complexing agents. Electrodeposition is conducted on a Cu substrate that is formed into dumbbell shaped specimens by UV lithographic techniques with Ir–Ta mesh as the anode [10]. The electrodeposited Ni–W alloys were separated from the Cu substrate by immersing the samples in an aqueous solution containing CrO3 and H2SO4. Fig.?1 shows a schematic illustration of the Ni–W electrodeposition apparatus. The interval between cathode plate and anode plate is 150 mm. The polyester agitation rod (18 mm diameter, 150 mm long) is used to brush the film surface. The distance from the Cu substrate to the center of the agitation rod is approximately 9 mm, so that the Cu substrate and agitation rod are in intimate contact during electrodeposition. Agitation by the brushing technique was conducted at a rate of 40 rpm with a sliding distance of 260 mm. Structural analysis of the electrodeposits was performed using high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM; JEOL JEM-2010) at an accelerating voltage of 200 kV, and X-ray diffraction (XRD; Rigaku Smart Lab) with Cu Kα radiation. By the results of the XRD measurement in our previous work [1], only Ni (1 1 1) peak were shown at the angle of 43 degree in electrodeposited Ni–W alloys. In this study, only (1 1 1) peak was observed. Grain sizes were estimated from dark-field HR-TEM images and by application the Scherrer equation to the Ni (1 1 1) peak of the XRD profiles. W contents for the Ni–W alloys were determined by electron probe microanalysis (EPMA; JEOL JXA-8900R) at an accelerating voltage of 15 kV, and with ZAF correction applied to the EPMA spectra. Tensile tests were performed using a micro strain tester (Shimadzu MST-I) with a initial strain rate of 4.2 × 10−4 s−1 at room temperature. The strain was measured using a strain gauge. The tensile specimen size was 0.5 mm wide, a 4 mm gauge length and 20–23 μm thick. The mesoscale surface structures of the Ni–W films were observed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM; JEOL JSM6500F) at an accelerating voltage of 15 kV. The surface roughness and surface defects of the Ni–W films were observed using confocal laser scanning microscopy (Olympus OLS-3000).

1 year ago

In general AD reduces pathogen content

Technical data of GSK503 digestion plants.PlantCSTR type digestersElectrical power (kWe)Feed mixtureHRT Inga–Digb (days)Process temperature (°C)SeparatorHRT Dig–Pre sepc (days)P1Single digester180Slurry and manure pig2839 ± 1P2Primary and secondary digesters350Pig slurry, agricultural biomass (corn silage, triticale)40–4542 ± 1P3Primary and secondary digesters400Pig slurry, agro-products (bran, middlings, food industry waste)30–3540 ± 2P4Single digester999Pig slurry, maize silage, corn middlings, agri-food products35–4039 ± 1P53 primary, 1 post-digesters999Pig slurry, silage (maize, sorghum, triticale), concentrated waste olive oil4039 ± 1P62 primary, 1 secondary, 1 post-digesters999Pig slurry, maize silage, triticale7039 ± 1Helical27P7Primary and secondary digesters999Cattle slurry, maize silage35–4039 ± 1Helical–P8Primary and secondary digesters340Maize silage, whey permeate2439 ± 1Helical–P91 primary, 1 secondary, 1 post-digesters650Maize silage, triticale2039 ± 1Helical20P10Primary and secondary digesters999Cattle slurry, maize silage2039 ± 1Helical20aIng = ingestate tank.bDig = digestate tank.cPre sep = pre separation tank.Full-size tableTable optionsView in workspaceDownload as CSV

1 year ago

Several studies have reported that

As illustrated in Fig. 1, the present HS TiO2 is featured by bipyramid agglomerate (BPA). We propose that distinct structural features of BPA may enhance the photocatalytic activity for the following reasons. Firstly, uniformly packed dense agglomerates promote an efficient charge pair separation through the interparticle charge transfer and provide accessible mesopores for the A 582941 of substrates. Furthermore, the bipyramidal shape enhances the electron transfer between primary particles by increasing the contact area. Secondly, the exposed 1 0 1 facets on the bipyramidal TiO2 further reduce the recombination rate because the photo-generated electrons are preferentially accumulated at the 1 0 1 facets with retarding the recombination rate [30] and [31]. Finally, the high crystallinity of bipyramidal particles with fewer defect sites can minimize the defect-induced recombination. The superior activities of 1 0 1 -oriented BPAs were demonstrated and discussed for photocatalytic and PEC performances.

1 year ago

CTX0294885 Unlike III ndash III ndash

Unlike III–III?–V ternary, the GaAs0.5Sb0.5 growth is more 'CTX0294885' challenging than the In0.5Ga0.5As one. The first challenge comes from the high miscibility gap temperature of GaAs0.5Sb0.5 in the range of 740 °C which is much higher than the miscibility gap temperature of In0.5Ga0.5As at 127 °C [11]. In the thermodynamic equilibrium, this CTX0294885 would mean that growth temperatures for GaAs0.5Sb0.5 higher than 740 °C are needed which is the range where the III–V surface degrades. Growth techniques that consist on interplays between thermodynamics, strain and kinetics can however offer the chance to grow metastable GaAs0.5Sb0.5 alloy. Even if genera material can be grown with metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD), molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) is expected to offer advantages due to being farther away from equilibrium growth than MOCVD [12]. This can however lead to another challenge related to the MBE growth of III–V–V?: the sticking coefficient of group-V elements (CV) which is well known to be inferior to 1 in MBE (whereas for group-III elements, CIII is always equal to 1) and hence extremely sensitive to any small growth conditions variations such as growth temperatures and molecular fluxes.

1 year ago

Fig xA Zeta potential variation of synthesized Py Fe O

Both the linearized forms of Langmuir and Freundlich equations are given by the following equations, respectively:equation(3)Ce/qe=1/KLqmax+1/qmaxCeequation(4)Logqe=LogKF+(1/n)LogCewhere Ce is zygote the equilibrium dye concentration into the sample solution (mg L−1), qe is the amount of dye absorbed per gram of adsorbent (mg g−1) at Ce, qmax is the maximum sorption capacity (mg g−1) which depends on the number of adsorption site.

1 year ago

Synthesis of surfactants The details of synthesis

2.5. Pretreatment effect
Acrylic samples were first pretreated in surfactant solutions 2% (o.w.f) individually at 100 °C for 2 h and the samples were rinsed thoroughly and dried. The dye adsorption onto these pretreated samples was investigated in the same way as described in Section 2.4. This was to determine the ability of dye SB 415286 to replace the pre-adsorbed surfactant molecules onto the acrylic fiber.
In addition, the effect of the cationic surfactants on desorption of the cationic dye from pre-dyed fibers was determined. The dyed samples were placed in the surfactant solution 1% (o.w.f) and treated at 100 °C for 2 h. At the end of this procedure, the amount of desorbed dye into the dye-bath solution was determined using UV-Vis spectroscopy.
2.6. Empirical kinetic models
The empirical kinetic models can be used to estimate the dyeing rate constant which shows how fast the dye adsorption takes place. There are cytokinesis a number of empirical kinetic models for determination of the rate constant (k) such the zero order or parabolic equation (Eq. (2)), the first order or exponential equation (Eq. (3)), the Cegarra and Puente equation (Eq. (4)) and the modified Cegarra-Puente equation (Eq. (5)) [14] and [30].equation(2)dCtdt=kCt→Ct=ktequation(3)dCtdt=k(C−∞Ct)→ln1−CtC∞=−ktequation(4)ln1−Ct2C∞2=−ktequation(5)ln−ln1−Ct2C∞2=a×ln k+a×ln t